In 1977, one of the first DNA sequencing methods to be developed, Sanger's dideoxy chain-termination method is the most commonly used first-generation method.

  1.  The DNA to be sequenced, ordinarily a double-helix, is denatured so that it separates into two single strands.
  2. DNA is then sequenced with DNA polymerase using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). However, fluorescently labeled dideoxy nucleotides (ddNTPS), which cause the sequencing to end even if the whole strand has not yet been sequenced,  are added along with regular nucleotides. This results in DNA fragments of all different lengths for each type of nucleotide at all possible locations. (see video on the right)
  3.  The fluorescently labeled DNA fragments of all different sizes can now be separated by size and optically imaged with a computer and laser detector via capillary electrophoresis(7) (21) (44)

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